Since the release of Windows 10 anniversary update the new integrated Bash is available, but requires a little bit of tweaking under the hood to get working.
You must be running the new anniversary update before this is available to install, so lets check by clicking
Start > winver and ensuring you have Version 1607 (OS Build 14393.51) or higher installed.
First we need to enable developer mode by clicking
Start > Settings > Update & Security > For Developers and tick "Developer mode".
Next we need to add the Windows Subsystem for Linux by clicking
Start > type "Turn Windows features on or off" > tick "Windows Subsystem for Linux (Beta)
This feature will require a restart of your computer.
Now open a command prompt
Start > type "cmd" and in the Command Prompt window type "bash".
You can now launch and pin the "Bash" application to you taskbar.
The copy paste functionality of the new Windows 10 command prompt means you can use ctrl+c to copy and ctrl+v to paste like full Windows applications. This functionality is not carried over to the integrated Bash.
To copy just left click and drag a selection as though you were using a word processor, once you are satisfied with your selection right click to commit it to the copy buffer (this should clear the selection as confirmation)
To paste a selection you just right click the mouse a second time.
Alternatively ctrl+insert and ctrl+shift+insert is supposed to work but I can't confirm as I was unable to use this combination.
Currently the network stack doesn't support ICMP unless you run the Bash shell as an administrator.
$ ping 127.0.0.1 ping: icmp open socket: Permission denied
Microsoft are working to resolve this issue, however you can right click the Bash icon and select "run as Administrator" to work around the issue.